Cell Transport Models

We have looked at vesicles, cell behavior, and biological osmosis.    Basically, living organisms are composed of single or multiple cells.    From the “Fundamentals of Medical Physiology”,   we know that the cell is the smallest unit of life and  cells are the fundamental building block of all living things.    Cells take in nutrients to generate energy ….  Read More

Honey

Honey is a natural topic for Valentine’s Day.   Here, we are discussing natural honey.  A sweet viscous liquid produced by honeybees.     A hive of honeybees can produce 100 pounds of extra honey annually and contains more than 60,000 bees.  Each bee produces a partial spoonful of honey during its three to 5-week lifetime.  There are ….  Read More

Osmosis History

We recently requested a professional review for our book “Osmosis: The Molecular Theory”.      That was again an interesting experience.     We have had the opportunity to find reviewers who are incompetent or dishonest.  Sometimes it is difficult to spot the difference from a short conversation.  So,  we will review osmosis history once again.    Osmosis was discovered ….  Read More

Rocket Sled

Before we wrote the Theory of Osmosis, I helped a friend build a track grinder for a rocket sled track.   I had been working on the project for about a year when I was needed at the project site near Alamogordo, NM  to get the track grinder building project started.   We were grinding the top ….  Read More

Cell Behavior

We were intrigued by the photos and blowups in John Clancy’s excellent book “The Human Body-Close Up” we browsed through the book from the back and were amazed at the detailed photos of the human body and its various parts. We were surprised when we approached the front of the book to find a blowup ….  Read More

Difference between Diffusion and Osmosis.

Quora digest posed the question “What is the difference between Diffusion and Osmosis?” We reviewed Guyton’s Textbook of Medical Physiology.   He notes three modes for transport of ions and molecules through a cell membrane: diffusion, osmosis, and active transport.    We have previously looked at active transport.     The active transport models were  developed to explain movement ….  Read More

Biological Osmosis

The osmosis experiment demonstrated that water flows uphill through a membrane from the pure water side into the wine. A large pressure applied to the wine stopped the flow of water into the wine.  Later experiments showed that a sugar water solution could replace the wine.  This led to Van’t Hoff’s theory for osmosis that ….  Read More

Vapor Pressure and Osmosis

HTMD Engineering was given the opportunity to design and build a cold storage facility for DeKalb Genetics for their hybrid seed corn.  The industry standard design conditions of 50°F and 50% relative humidity were selected, and we chose to insulate the facility with a closed cell spray on insulation which provided both good thermal insulation ….  Read More

Maple Tree Details

Our previous blogs about trees, “My Tree Leaks”, “Maple Syrup” were based on our theory of osmosis, “Osmosis: The Molecular Theory”, 2013” and measurements from our own sugar maple tree. We tapped the tree by drilling a 2 ½” deep hole through the bark and inserting a 3/8” pipe with a pressure gauge as shown ….  Read More

Seed Storage

Seeds are living organisms.    They breathe and exchange heat and moisture with their environment.   With warm temperatures and enough moisture,  seeds will germinate. At low temperature and dry conditions, seeds will hibernate.   World seed organizations support long term storage facilities.   Stored seeds will be used for recovery from a catastrophe.  The Svalbard Global Seed Vault ….  Read More