My Tree Drips

My tree drips. We proposed a model for maple tree sap collection.     Sap rises as vapor in a tree.   When the temperature drops below freezing, the excess vapor freezes.    Then, as the temperature warms, the frozen sap thaws to a liquid which is then collected.   This liquid sap is in a non-equilibrium condition. that is ….  Read More

Pressure

Vapor Pressure II As we noted previously, the osmosis process of molecular movement through a membrane is directly related to vapor pressure difference.  This agrees with other models for fluid flow.    Flow is directly related to pressure difference and flow proceeds from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area.   But, what is pressure?      We introduce ….  Read More

Maple Syrup

We are approaching maple syrup season.   Sap is collected from Late February to April.   Forty gallons of sap boil down to approximately 1 gallon of maple syrup.  I tapped my sixty-foot-high maple tree several years ago and again this year, then inserted a pressure gage.  I recorded pressure, ambient temperature and tree trunk temperature at ….  Read More

HYBRID Seed Corn

HYBRID Seed Corn Hybrid seed corn has been specifically developed with special characteristics for: wet/dry growing seasons, soil types, plant strength, disease resistance, days to maturity, etc.    More than 100 varieties are available from major suppliers.    It is very expensive to produce hybrid seed corn.    Six rows of one variety of corn are planted between ….  Read More

Vapor Pressure

Others have suggested that vapor pressure is the driving force for osmosis, they were slapped in the face also.    Osmotic pressure is approximately 140 times greater than vapor pressure. We asked the question what is vapor pressure?  Frankel (1943) suggested that liquids and solids can be represented as crystal lattice structures with molecules at the ….  Read More

Reverse Osmosis

REVERSE OSMOSIS The Osmosis experiment has intrigued many people for years.   Water flowed uphill through a membrane into wine.   Water flow stops when a high pressure (osmotic pressure) is applied to the wine.   Further increases in pressure on the wine will cause pure water to flow from the wine to the water.   This is known ….  Read More

Transport through a Membrane

Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain flow through a membrane.   These are: Bulk pressure driven flow      The entire flow field is forced through a membrane (filter).   Larger particles are trapped in the filter.   The cleaned fluid is normally reused in the system. Trapped impurities remain in the filter.  Special filters can remove submicroscopic particles.   ….  Read More

Membranes

A membrane is a soft pliable sheet made from plant, animal, or a man-made Material.   Membranes can be described as permeable or semi permeable.   Semipermeable means that some materials can pass through the membrane but other materials cannot.    The osmosis experiment is a prominent example of a semipermeable membrane.   Water and wine were separated by ….  Read More

Osmotic Pressure

OSMOTIC PRESSURE JA Nollet’s simple experiment (1748) to investigate the filter efficiency of a bladder membrane produced an enigma which is still misunderstood by many persons today.    Wine in a column was separated from pure water by a pig’s bladder membrane (figure 1).    The static pressure produced by a column of wine was expected to ….  Read More

Osmosis History

I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great. I don’t know who you are but certainly you’re going to a famous blogger if you are not already 😉 Cheers! http://educationtip.eu